- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
A novel MIPgene mutation associated with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts in a Chinese family
- Yibo Yu†1, 2,
- Yinhui Yu†1, 2,
- Peiqing Chen1,
- Jinyu Li1, 2,
- Yanan Zhu1, 2,
- Yi Zhai1, 2 and
- Ke Yao1, 2Email author
© Yu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 23 October 2013
Accepted: 7 January 2014
Published: 9 January 2014
The major intrinsic protein gene (MIP), also known as MIP26 or AQP0, is a member of the water-transporting aquaporin family, which plays a critical role in the maintenance of lifelong lens transparency. To date, several mutations in MIP (OMIM 154050) have been linked to hereditary cataracts in humans. However, more pathogenic mutations remain to be identified. In this study, we describe a four-generation Chinese family with a nonsense mutation in MIP associated with an autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC), thus expanding the mutational spectrum of this gene.
A large four-generation Chinese family affected with typical Y-suture cataracts combined with punctuate cortical opacities and 100 ethnically matched controls were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes to analyze congenital cataract-related candidate genes. Effects of the sequence change on the structure and function of proteins were predicted by bioinformatics analysis.
Direct sequencing of MIP in all affected members revealed a heterozygous nucleotide exchange c.337C>T predicting an arginine to a stop codon exchange (p.R113X). The substitution co-segregated well in all the affected individuals in the family and was not found in unaffected members or in the 100 unrelated healthy controls. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the mutation affects the secondary structure and function of the MIP protein.
We identified a novel mutation of MIP (p.R113X) in a Chinese cataract family. This is the first nonsense mutation of MIP identified thus far. This novel mutation is also the first disease-causing mutation located in the loop C domain of MIP. The results add to the list of mutations of the MIP linked to cataracts.
Congenital cataract is the leading cause of visual impairment in children, and it is responsible for approximately 10% of irreversible childhood blindness worldwide, with a prevalence of 1 to 6 cases/10,000 live births [1, 2]. It was reported that about 8.3–25% of congenital cataracts are inherited , with autosomal dominant transmission the most common mode of inheritance, although autosomal recessive and X-linked traits of inheritance exist . Congenital cataracts may occur in an isolated fashion or in association with other ocular dysmorphology, as well as systemic malformations .
Knowledge of the genetic background of congenital cataract has increased considerably during the past decennia. To date, more than 35 independent loci have been identified for nonsyndromic cataract, segregating most often as an autosomal dominant trait, of which 25 represent identified genes [3, 5]. The number of mutations exceeds 100 [3, 5]. Among the cataract mutations reported, about half involve crystallines, and a quarter involve connexins [3, 5, 6]. The remainder are divided among the genes for heat shock transcription factor-4 (HSF4), major intrinsic protein (MIP), and beaded filament structural protein-2 (BFSP2) [3, 5, 6].
MIP, a member of the water-transporting aquaporin family, is the most abundant junctional membrane protein in lens fiber cells, constituting more than 60% of the total membrane protein content of these cells [7, 8].It plays a critical role in conferring rapid movements of water across cell membranes and controlling the water content of cells [9, 10]. To date, several mutations in human MIP, including missense and frameshift mutations,have been reported to induce inherited cataracts.
This study aimed to identify the molecular defects in autosomal dominant congenital cataracts in a large Chinese family. And a novel nonsense mutation in MIP that co-segregated with the disease was identified to be responsible for the congenital cataracts.
Family enrollment and genomic DNA preparation
A four-generation Chinese family from a remote mountain region of Guizhou province with autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC) was recruited from the Eye Center of the 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. This study was approved by the Zhejiang University Institutional Review Board, and the study protocol followed the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. After appropriate informed consent was obtained from the participants, all family members underwent detailed ophthalmological examinations, including visual acuity, slit lamp, and fundus examinations with dilated pupils.
Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood leukocytes using the Simgen Blood DNA mini kit (Simgen, Hangzhou, China) for PCR amplification. A total of 100 ethnically matched subjects withouta family history of congenital cataracts were recruited as controls.
We used the functional candidate gene analysis approach. Ten genes most frequently involved in autosomal dominant cataract were analyzed: CRYAA, CRYAB, CRYBA3/A1, CRYBB1, CRYBB2, CRYGC, CRYGD, GJA3, GJA8, and MIP. All coding exons and intron-exon boundaries of the candidate genes were amplified by PCR using previously published primer sequences [11, 12]. The cycling conditions for PCR were as follows: 95°C preactivation for 5 min, 10 cycles of touchdown PCR with 1°C down per cycle from 60°C to 50°C, followed by 25 cycles with denaturation at 95°C for 25 s, annealing at 55°C for 25 s and extension at 72°C for 40s, then finally extension at 72°C for 10 min. The thermal cycling was performed under suitable conditions using a C1000 TM 48-well thermal cycler (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). PCR products were isolated by electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gels and sequenced using the BigDye Terminator Cycle sequencing kit V3.1 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) on an Applied Biosystems PRISM 3730 Sequence Analyzer, according to the manufacturer’s directions. Sequencing results were analyzed using Chromas 1.62 and compared with sequences from the NCBI GenBank database.
To predict the effect of this nonsense mutation on the protein, we used the online SWISS-MODEL and DEEP VIEW/SWISS-Pdb tool to analyze both the mutant and wild-type version of the structure of the MIP protein. For hydropathy analysis, we used Compute pI/MW to predict the isoelectric point (pI) and the molecular weight (MW) of the wild-type and mutant protein. Furthermore, online Mutation Taster software was used to distinguish between functionally neutral and deleterious mutations.
As the most abundant membrane protein within lens fiber cells, MIP facilitates the movement of water into and across lens fiber cells. Besides functioning as a water channel, it may also act as an adhesion molecule, compacting highly ordered fiber cells and minimizing extracellular space and light scattering to maintain the lens transparency . To date, 10 mutations of MIP have been associated with congenital cataract (c.97C > T [p.R33C] , c.401A > G [p.E134G] , c.413C > G [p.T138R] , c.530A > G [p.Y177C] , c.559C > T [p.R187C] , c.698G > A [p.R233K] , c.2 T > C [p.Met1?] , c.494G > A [p.G165D] , IVS-1G > A [p.V203fs] , and c.638delG [p.G213VfsX46] ). As we all know, the dominantly inherited mutations are mainly missense mutations that lead to amino acid substitutions, other examples include nonsense or frame shift mutations. And the severity of the cataract may be determined by anatomic location, size, density, and progression of the opacity. In general, the more posteriorly located and dense an opacity, the greater the impact on visual function [2, 22]. The cataract family we reported was associated with a nonsense mutation (c.337C > T [p. R113X]) which produced a severely truncated protein. While this mutation produced an identical phenotype of Y suture cataract combined with fine punctate opacities in the cortex which did not involve the posterior part of the lens. This would well explain why there was no complaint of distinctly decreased visual acuity from all patients.
The phenotypes of cataracts are significantly different among MIP mutation families, pointing to the presence of extensive clinical heterogeneity of hereditary cataracts. We compared the phenotype of our family with one affected member of a cataract family reported by Geyer et al.  in 2006 and found that the clinical features were very similar: Both manifested as fine punctate opacities in the cortex and Y suture. They reported a single nucleotide deletion, which caused a frameshift and premature stop codon that truncated 6 amino acids from the C-terminus of MIP. More interestingly, when we analyzed the phenotypes of other reported families, we found that 3 of 10 examples (30%) had opacities involving Y sutures [14, 18, 21]. The way in which the lens suture forms may explain this finding. As is well known, MIP is expressed as soon as the first primary fibers start filling the lens vesicle, and it continues to be expressed as the secondary fibers are differentiated from the equatorial epithelial cells . When the terminal ends of the secondary fibers overlap with one another, lens sutures form . Deletion of the MIP gene in mice led to a lack of suture formation [25, 26]. The important role that MIP plays in suture formation is consistent with the phenotype observed in MIP mutation families.
In this study, we have described the first nonsense mutation in MIP causing autosomal dominant congenital cataracts in a large Chinese family. It is also the first mutation located in the loop C domain of MIP. Our data expand the spectrum of MIP mutations and validate the extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity of congenital cataract. None of the affected members in the family complained of significant visual deterioration in their daily life. The identification of this mutation may enable proper genetic diagnostics and counseling in both young and elderly patients.
We are grate thankful to all the family members for participating in this study. This research was supported by the Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.81130018), Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.81371001), National “Twelfth Five-Year” Plan for Science & Technology Support of China (No.2012BAI08B01) Zhejiang Key Innovation Team Project of China (2009R50039), Zhejiang Key Laboratory Fund of China (2011E10006) and Project of National Clinical Key Discipline of Chinese Ministry of Health.
- Apple DJ, Ram J, Foster A, Peng Q: Elimination of cataract blindness: a global perspective entering the new millenium. Surv Ophthalmol. 2000, 45 (Suppl 1): S1-S196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Francis PJ, Berry V, Bhattacharya SS, Moore AT: The genetics of childhood cataract. J Med Genet. 2000, 37: 481-488. 10.1136/jmg.37.7.481.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hejtmancik JF: Congenital cataracts and their molecular genetics. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2008, 19: 134-149. 10.1016/j.semcdb.2007.10.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vanita J, Singh D: Genetic and segregation analysis of congenital cataract in the indian population. Clin Genet. 1999, 56: 389-393. 10.1034/j.1399-0004.1999.560507.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shiels A, Bennett TM, Hejtmancik JF: Cat-map: putting cataract on the map. Mol Vis. 2010, 16: 2007-2015.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Shiels A, Hejtmancik JF: Genetic origins of cataract. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008, 125: 165-173.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bloemendal H, Zweers A, Vermorken F, Dunia I, Benedetti EL: The plasma membranes of eye lens fibres. Biochemical and structural characterization. Cell Differ. 1972, 1: 91-106. 10.1016/0045-6039(72)90032-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gorin MB, Yancey SB, Cline J, Revel JP, Horwitz J: The major intrinsic protein (MIP) of the bovine lens fiber membrane: characterization and structure based on cDNA cloning. Cell. 1984, 39: 49-59. 10.1016/0092-8674(84)90190-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borgnia M, Nielsen S, Engel A, Agre P: Cellular and molecular biology of the aquaporin water channels. Annu Rev Biochem. 1999, 68: 425-458. 10.1146/annurev.biochem.68.1.425.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shiels A, Bassnett S, Varadaraj K, Mathias R, Al-Ghoul K, Kuszak J, Donoviel D, Lilleberg S, Friedrich G, Zambrowicz B: Optical dysfunction of the crystalline lens in aquaporin-0-deficient mice. Physiol Genomics. 2001, 7: 179-186.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li J, Wang Q, Fu Q, Zhu Y, Zhai Y, Yu Y, Zhang K, Yao K: A novel connexin 50 gene (gap junction protein, alpha 8) mutation associated with congenital nuclear and zonular pulverulent cataract. Mol Vis. 2013, 19: 767-774.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gu F, Zhai H, Li D, Zhao L, Li C, Huang S, Ma X: A novel mutation in major intrinsic protein of the lens gene ( MIP ) underlies autosomal dominant cataract in a Chinese family. Mol Vis. 2007, 13: 1651-1656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Engel A, Fujiyoshi Y, Gonen T, Walz T: Junction-forming aquaporins. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2008, 18: 229-235. 10.1016/j.sbi.2007.11.003.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Berry V, Francis P, Kaushal S, Moore A, Bhattacharya S: Missense mutations in MIP underlie autosomal dominant polymorphic and lamellar cataracts linked to 12q. Nat Genet. 2000, 25: 15-17. 10.1038/75538.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang G, Zhang G, Wu Q, Zhao J: A novel mutation in the MIP gene is associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family. Mol Vis. 2011, 17: 1320-1323.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wang KJ, Li SS, Yun B, Ma WX, Jiang TG, Zhu SQ: A novel mutation in MIP associated with congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family. Mol Vis. 2011, 17: 70-77.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lin H, Hejtmancik JF, Qi Y: A substitution of arginine to lysine at the COOH-terminus of MIP caused a different binocular phenotype in a congenital cataract family. Mol Vis. 2007, 13: 1822-1827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiao X, Li W, Wang P, Li L, Li S, Jia X, Sun W, Guo X, Zhang Q: Cerulean cataract mapped to 12q13 and associated with a novel initiation codon mutation in MIP. Mol Vis. 2011, 17: 2049-2055.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Senthil Kumar G, Kyle JW, Minogue PJ, Dinesh Kumar K, Vasantha K, Berthoud VM, Beyer EC, Santhiya ST: An MIP/AQP0 mutation with impaired trafficking and function underlies an autosomal dominant congenital lamellar cataract. Exp Eye Res. 2013, 110: 136-141.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jiang J, Jin C, Wang W, Tang X, Shentu X, Wu R, Wang Y, Xia K, Yao K: Identification of a novel splice-site mutation in MIP in a Chinese congenital cataract family. Mol Vis. 2009, 15: 38-44.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Geyer DD, Spence MA, Johannes M, Flodman P, Clancy KP, Berry R, Sparkes RS, Jonsen MD, Isenberg SJ, Bateman JB: Novel single-base deletional mutation in major intrinsic protein (MIP) in autosomal dominant cataract. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006, 141: 761-763. 10.1016/j.ajo.2005.11.008.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Parks M, Johnson D, Reed G: Long term visual results and complications in children with aphakia: a function of cataract type. Ophthalmology. 1993, 100: 826-841. 10.1016/S0161-6420(93)31566-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Francis P, Chung JJ, Yasui M, Berry V, Moore A, Wyatt MK, Wistow G, Bhattacharya SS, Agre P: Functional impairment of lens aquaporin in two families with dominantly inherited cataracts. Hum Mol Genet. 2000, 9: 2329-2334. 10.1093/oxfordjournals.hmg.a018925.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuszak JR, Zoltoski RK, Tiedemann CE: Development of lens sutures. Int J Dev Biol. 2004, 48: 889-902. 10.1387/ijdb.041880jk.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Ghoul KJ, Kirk T, Kuszak AJ, Zoltoski RK, Shiels A, Kuszak JR: Lens structure in MIP-deficient mice. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2003, 273: 714-730.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Varadaraj K, Kumari SS, Mathias RT: Functional expression of aquaporins in embryonic, postnatal, and adult mouse lenses. Dev Dyn. 2007, 236: 1319-1328. 10.1002/dvdy.21125.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Varadaraj K, Kumari SS, Patil R, Wax MB, Mathias RT: Functional characterization of a human aquaporin 0 mutation that leads to a congenital dominant lens cataract. Exp Eye Res. 2008, 87: 9-21. 10.1016/j.exer.2008.04.001.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Watanabe K, Wada K, Ohashi T, Okubo S, Takekuma K, Hashizume R, Hayashi J, Serikawa T, Kuramoto T, Kikkawa Y: A 5-bp insertion in mip causes recessive congenital cataract in KFRS4/Kyo Rats. PLoS One. 2012, 7: e50737-10.1371/journal.pone.0050737.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hentze MW, Kulozik AE: A perfect message: RNA surveillance and nonsense-mediated decay. Cell. 1999, 96: 307-310. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80542-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maquat LE, Carmichael GG: Quality control of mRNA function. Cell. 2001, 104: 173-176. 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00202-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khajavi M, Inoue K, Lupski JR: Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay modulates clinical outcome of genetic disease. Eur J Hum Genet. 2006, 14: 1074-1081. 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201649.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baker KE, Parker R: Nonsense-mediated Mrna decay: terminating erroneous gene expression. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004, 16: 293-299. 10.1016/j.ceb.2004.03.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://0-www.biomedcentral.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/1471-2350/15/6/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.