- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Matrix metalloproteinase-9gene polymorphisms in nasal polyposis
© Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 17 September 2009
Accepted: 9 June 2010
Published: 9 June 2010
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) is involved in the upper airway remodeling process. We hypothesized that genetic variants of the MMP-9 gene are associated with cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis.
We conducted a case-control study where 203 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and 730 controls were enrolled. Three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one promoter functional SNP rs3918242 were selected. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested for each SNP, and genetic effects were evaluated according to three inheritance modes. Haplotype analysis was also performed. Permutation was used to adjust for multiple testing.
All four SNPs were in HWE. The T allele of promoter SNP rs3918242 was associated with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis under the dominant (nominal p = 0.023, empirical p = 0.022, OR = 1.62) and additive models (nominal p= 0.012, empirical p = 0.011, OR = 1.60). The A allele of rs2274756 has a nominal p value of 0.034 under the dominant model and 0.020 under the additive model. Haplotype analysis including the four SNPs showed a global p value of 0.015 and the most significant haplotype had a p value of 0.0045. We did not see any SNP that was more significant in the recurrent cases.
We concluded that MMP-9 gene polymorphisms may influence susceptibility to the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis in Chinese population.
Tissue remodeling has gained increasing interest in the pathogenesis of chronic upper and lower airway disease. It is a dynamic process that involves extracellular matrix (ECM) production and degradation leading to either a normal reconstruction process or a pathological structure . Nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease in the upper airway. The histological appearance of nasal polyposis is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, modifications of epithelial cell differentiation, and tissue remodeling that includes basement membrane thickening, gland modifications, ECM accumulation and edema. Previous studies suggested that polyposis formation involved ECM protrusion through an initial localized epithelial defect . Interactions between epithelial, stromal, and inflammatory cells could then perpetuate further polyposis growth. Although inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, are thought to play an important role in nasal polyposis, the sequence of events for the development of polyposis is still controversial.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc and calcium-dependent endopeptidases that are known to be important to remodel the ECM. MMP-9 (92 kD type IV Collagenase, gelatinase B) cleaves type IV collagen which is the major structural component of basement membrane. Studies also suggested that MMP-9 may play a crucial role in airway remodeling in asthma . In transgenic animal studies, an elevated level of MMP-9 was associated with defects in bronchial architecture . Upregulation of MMP-9 in the nasal polyposis may damage the collagen of basement membrane of epithelia and blood vessels, causing increases in permeability and edema in the stroma. Elevated levels of MMP-9 protein [5–8] and MMP-9 mRNA [6, 7] were found in the cases of nasal polyposis. Elevated plasma MMP-9 level was also reported recently in patients with allergic nasal polyps . Patients with poor-healing reaction after sinus surgery had more severe edematous and fibrotic changes , and higher amounts of MMP-9 in both nasal secretions  and connective tissue  when compared with good healers. Therefore MMP-9 may play a role in the pathogenesis or recurrence of the nasal polyposis. To our knowledge, there is no published data regarding the relationship between MMP-9 genetic polymorphisms and the risk of the chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. We conducted a case-control study to systematically investigate the role of MMP-9 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) and a promoter functional polymorphism in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis in a Chinese population residing in Taiwan.
We recruited 203 patients of bilateral chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between October 2005 and June 2007. The diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis was based on history, physical examination, nasal endoscope, and sinus CT scan. Patients with malignancies or asthma were excluded from the study. All the patients were followed up at least three months after surgery. Recurrence was defined as a patient with newly developed pedunculated nasal polyps (instead of cobblestone or polypoid mucosa) fully occupying the middle meatus three months after surgery using either anterior rhinoscope or nasal endoscope. Recurrence was identified in twenty six patients for whom revision surgery was performed at our institution. A total of 730 control subjects were used in the present study and they were recruited from the general populations who volunteered to participate in our study while receiving a health screening examination at our Hospital. None of the controls reported major disable diseases upon enrollment. Information on demographic characteristics was collected. The study was proved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital and written informed consent was given by each subject.
SNP selection and Genotyping
Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood by a standard method. Three tSNPs were selected from the HapMap Project (International HapMap Consortium) and all of them have the minor allele frequency ≥ 10% in the Han Chinese population. The three tSNPs are: the non-synonymous SNP rs2664538 (Gln/Arg) at exon 6 (this SNP was merged to rs17576), intronic SNP rs3787268 at intron 8 and non-synonymous SNP rs2274756 (Gln/Arg) at exon 12 (this SNP was merged to rs17577). In addition, we also chose one commonly studied promoter functional SNP (rs3918242, i.e. -1562 C/T). Genotyping for the three tSNPs was carried out by using the TaqMan 5' nuclease assay (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA). Briefly, PCR primers and TaqMan Minor Groove Binder (MGB) probes were designed and reactions were performed in 96-well microplates with ABI 9700 thermal cyclers (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA). Fluorescence was measured with an ABI 7500 Real Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) and analyzed with its System SDS software version 1.2.3. Genotyping for promoter SNP rs3918242 (-1562C/T) was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. The forward and reverse primers were 5' GCCTGGCACATAGTAGGCCC 3' and 5' CTTCCTAGCCAGCCGGCATC 3', respectively . The restriction site was detected by SphI .
Continuous variables were analyzed by independent t test and were presented as mean ± SD. The allele frequency was obtained by direct gene counting. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was checked in controls by using the x2 test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the genetic effect with adjustment for age and sex. We examined the effect of the minor allele of each SNP in three genetic models (dominant, additive, and recessive). We also performed a subset analysis by stratifying the cases according to recurrence of the disease. SPSS 13.0 version for Windows (Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was assessed for any pair of SNPs and haplotype blocks were defined using the default setting of the Haploview software . We used the Hap-Clustering program  to evaluate haplotype-phenotype association. To adjust for multiple testing, we also presented empirical p values by 10,000 permutations.
Baseline demographics of study characteristics
Cases (n = 203)
Control (n = 730)
Age, mean (SD)
Sex (male to female ratio)
Nasal polyposis recurrence, No.(%)
Single SNP Results
Four SNPs and their relationships with nasal polyposis under three genetic models
(in exon 6)
Recurrent cases(n = 64)
Non-recurrent cases(n = 139)
LD and Haplotype Analysis
The result from haplotype analysis which yielded a global p value of 0.015
Patients with chronic
We systematically investigated four SNPs at MMP-9 in relation to chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis in a Chinese population residing in Taiwan. The results showed that three SNPs were associated with the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. The most significant result was from the promoter polymorphism of the MMP-9 gene (rs3918242, i.e. -1562 C/T), which indicates that the rare T allele would significantly increase the risk for nasal polyposis. We did not find more significant results in the recurrent subjects. As a matter of fact, the frequencies of the risk T allele at rs3918242 and the risk A allele at rs2274756 are similar between the non-recurrent cases and recurrent cases. Using the haplotype analysis, the result gave us a stronger statistical support for MMP-9 as a genetic marker. Therefore, the current data showed that MMP-9 polymorphisms might influence susceptibility to the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis but might not increase the risk for recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the potential contribution of the MMP-9 genetic variants to the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis.
Regulation of MMPs is complex. It is considered that regulation of MMP activity occurs at three levels: gene transcription, activation of the secreted proenzyme and inhibition by specific and non-specific inhibitors . The regression analysis suggested that the two significant SNPs were not independent and the promoter SNP remained significant after including the rs2274756 at exon 12 into the model. Therefore, it is likely that the genetic effect of MMP-9 was mainly from the promoter SNP. Furthermore, MMP-9 protein[5–8] and mRNA[6, 7] levels were reported to be different between patients with the chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and controls. Zhang et al.  also reported that the T allele of promoter SNP rs3918242 at MMP-9 had a higher promoter activity which would lead to a higher production of MMP-9, although a recent study did not find any differential expression between the T and C alleles .Taken together, the studies using different approaches consistently imply that the high activity T allele is likely to increase a risk for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis.
Our study design has limitations. The sample size in the present study was moderate, and type I error is always possible. However, based on the result of functional SNP rs3918242, the study population still provided a power of 85% to detect the risk allelic effect. Further studies to replicate our results are necessary. The follow-up period is limited in our study. Because nasal polyps may recur several years after surgery, extended follow up is required prior do drawing further conclusions. Our controls did not receive a nasal examination to exclude the possibility of nasal polyposis. Because the prevalence of nasal polyps is usually less than 4% [21, 22], we did not expect a significant number of our controls to have chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. Furthermore, if any controls had chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, the effect of such misclassification of disease status would only decrease the statistical power and reduce the significance. Therefore, our conclusion is valid even though we did not examine the controls. Although the sex distribution was different between cases and controls, the genotype distributions between male controls and female controls are very similar. Accordingly, our results were not confounded by the sex effect.
In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence to support genetic polymorphisms in the MMP9 gene can influence the risk for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. Furthermore, the T allele of the functional promoter SNP rs3918242 that has been shown to increase MMP-9 expression is also a risk allele for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. However, the role of MMP-9 polymorphisms in the recurrence of the disease requires further investigation.
This work was supported by the grants from Taiwan National Science Council (NSC95-2314-B-037-020 for SHJ) and Kaohsiung Medical University intramural funding (97-KMU-03 for LFW)
- Bousquet J, Chanez P, Lacoste JY, White R, Vic P, Godard P, Michel FB: Asthma: a disease remodeling the airways. Allergy. 1992, 47: 3-11. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.1992.tb02242.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caye-Thomasen P, Hermansson A, Tos M, Prellner K: Polyp pathogenesis--a histopathological study in experimental otitis media. Acta Otolaryngol. 1995, 115: 76-82. 10.3109/00016489509133351.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Belleguic C, Corbel M, Germain N, Lena H, Boichot E, Delaval PH, Lagente V: Increased release of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the plasma of acute severe asthmatic patients. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002, 32: 217-223. 10.1046/j.1365-2222.2002.01219.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wert SE, Yoshida M, LeVine AM, Ikegami M, Jones T, Ross GF, Fisher JH, Korfhagen TR, Whitsett JA: Increased metalloproteinase activity, oxidant production, and emphysema in surfactant protein D gene-inactivated mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000, 97: 5972-5977. 10.1073/pnas.100448997.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Eisenberg G, Pradillo J, Plaza G, Lizasoain I, Moro MA: [Increased expression and activity of MMP-9 in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2008, 59: 444-447. 10.1016/S0001-6519(08)75116-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen YS, Langhammer T, Westhofen M, Lorenzen J: Relationship between matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 and IL-5, IL-8 in nasal polyps. Allergy. 2007, 62: 66-72. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.01255.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watelet JB, Bachert C, Claeys C, Van Cauwenberge P: Matrix metalloproteinases MMP-7, MMP-9 and their tissue inhibitor TIMP-1: expression in chronic sinusitis vs nasal polyposis. Allergy. 2004, 59: 54-60. 10.1046/j.1398-9995.2003.00364.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shin HW, Han DH, Lim YS, Kim HJ, Kim DY, Lee CH, Min YG, Rhee CS: Nonasthmatic nasal polyposis patients with allergy exhibit greater epithelial MMP positivity. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009, 141: 442-447. 10.1016/j.otohns.2009.07.011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bugdayci G, Kaymakci M, Bukan N: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in allergic nasal polyps. Acta Histochem. 2010, 112: 92-95. 10.1016/j.acthis.2008.07.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watelet JB, Demetter P, Claeys C, Cauwenberge P, Cuvelier C, Bachert C: Wound healing after paranasal sinus surgery: neutrophilic inflammation influences the outcome. Histopathology. 2006, 48: 174-181. 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2005.02310.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watelet JB, Demetter P, Claeys C, Van Cauwenberge P, Cuvelier C, Bachert C: Neutrophil-derived metalloproteinase-9 predicts healing quality after sinus surgery. Laryngoscope. 2005, 115: 56-61. 10.1097/01.mlg.0000150674.30237.3f.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Watelet JB, Claeys C, Van Cauwenberge P, Bachert C: Predictive and monitoring value of matrix metalloproteinase-9 for healing quality after sinus surgery. Wound Repair Regen. 2004, 12: 412-418. 10.1111/j.1067-1927.2004.012411.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morgan AR, Zhang B, Tapper W, Collins A, Ye S: Haplotypic analysis of the MMP-9 gene in relation to coronary artery disease. J Mol Med. 2003, 81: 321-326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barrett JC, Fry B, Maller J, Daly MJ: Haploview: analysis and visualization of LD and haplotype maps. Bioinformatics. 2005, 21: 263-265. 10.1093/bioinformatics/bth457.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tzeng JY, Wang CH, Kao JT, Hsiao CK: Regression-based association analysis with clustered haplotypes through use of genotypes. Am J Hum Genet. 2006, 78: 231-242. 10.1086/500025.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kirtsreesakul V: Update on nasal polyps: etiopathogenesis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005, 88: 1966-1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Larsen K, Tos M: The estimated incidence of symptomatic nasal polyps. Acta Otolaryngol. 2002, 122: 179-182. 10.1080/00016480252814199.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shaida A, Kenyon G, Devalia J, Davies RJ, MacDonald TT, Pender SL: Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in the nasal mucosa of patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001, 108: 791-796. 10.1067/mai.2001.119024.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang B, Ye S, Herrmann SM, Eriksson P, de Maat M, Evans A, Arveiler D, Luc G, Cambien F, Hamsten A, et al: Functional polymorphism in the regulatory region of gelatinase B gene in relation to severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation. 1999, 99: 1788-1794.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maqbool A, Turner NA, Galloway S, Riches K, O'Regan DJ, Porter KE: The -1562C/T MMP-9 promoter polymorphism does not predict MMP-9 expression levels or invasive capacity in saphenous vein smooth muscle cells cultured from different patients. Atherosclerosis. 2009, 207: 458-465. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.05.028.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Johansson L, Akerlund A, Holmberg K, Melen I, Bende M: Prevalence of nasal polyps in adults: the Skovde population-based study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003, 112: 625-629.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klossek JM, Neukirch F, Pribil C, Jankowski R, Serrano E, Chanal I, El Hasnaoui A: Prevalence of nasal polyposis in France: a cross-sectional, case-control study. Allergy. 2005, 60: 233-237. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2005.00688.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://0-www.biomedcentral.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/1471-2350/11/85/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.