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Clinical-Molecular Genetics and Cytogenetics

This section considers studies of the structure and function of genes and chromosomes, with relation to human health and disease and the role of genetic mutations and cytogenetic changes in human genetic disorders.

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  1. Content type: Case report

    Thalassemias (TM) are the most common autosomal recessive disorders in Southeast Asian countries. Both α- and β-thalassemia lead to a decrease or absence of globin chains. The most serious of the thalassemia s...

    Authors: Liangying Zhong, Xin Gan, Lingling Xu, Chujia Liang, Yingjun Xie, Wenbin Lin, Peisong Chen and Min Liu

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:145

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder that is characterized by decreased serum uric acid concentration and increased fractional excretion of uric acid. Previous reports have revealed ma...

    Authors: Zhaowei Zhou, Lidan Ma, Juan Zhou, Zhijian Song, Jinmai Zhang, Ke Wang, Boyu Chen, Dun Pan, Zhiqiang Li, Changgui Li and Yongyong Shi

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:142

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is caused by mutations in serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11) gene. The increased cancer risk has been connected to P53 pathway.

    Authors: Yu-Liang Jiang, Zi-Ye Zhao, Bai-Rong Li, Fu Yang, Jing Li, Xiao-Wei Jin, Hao Wang, En-Da Yu, Shu-Han Sun and Shou-Bin Ning

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:141

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Mutations in the X-linked gene filamin A (FLNA), encoding the actin-binding protein FLNA, cause a wide spectrum of connective tissue, skeletal, cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal manifestations. Males are typ...

    Authors: Elyssa Cannaerts, Anju Shukla, Mensuda Hasanhodzic, Maaike Alaerts, Dorien Schepers, Lut Van Laer, Katta M. Girisha, Iva Hojsak, Bart Loeys and Aline Verstraeten

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:140

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder in children characterized by a normal neurodevelopmental process in the first 6–18 months followed by a period of motor and vocal deterioration with ...

    Authors: Huong Le Thi Thanh, Trinh Do Thi Diem, Chinh Vu Duy, Ha Ly Thi Thanh, Hoa Bui Thi Phuong and Liem Nguyen Thanh

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:137

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The hypothalamic G-protein-coupled-receptor melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a key player in the central circuit regulating energy expenditure and appetite. Heterozygous loss-of-function MC4R mutations are the m...

    Authors: Max Drabkin, Ohad S. Birk and Ruth Birk

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:135

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  7. Content type: Case report

    Hearing loss is genetically heterogeneous and is one of the most common human defects. Here we screened the underlying mutations that caused autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss in a Chinese family.

    Authors: Di Ma, Shanshan Shen, Hui Gao, Hui Guo, Yumei Lin, Yuhua Hu, Ruanzhang Zhang and Shayan Wang

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:133

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A) is a rare genetic disease primarily characterized by resistance to parathyroid hormone along with hormonal resistance and other features of Albright hereditary osteodys...

    Authors: Xiao-dan Long, Jing Xiong, Zhao-hui Mo, Chang-sheng Dong and Ping Jin

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:132

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  9. Content type: Case report

    Galloway–Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is a rare hereditary renal–neurological disease characterized by early-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in combination with microcephaly and brain anomalies. Recently,...

    Authors: Hye Sun Hyun, Seong Heon Kim, Eujin Park, Myung Hyun Cho, Hee Gyung Kang, Hyun Soon Lee, Noriko Miyake, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi and Hae Il Cheong

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:131

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  10. Content type: Case report

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) associated with mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typically manifests only optic nerve involvement but in some patients may develop additional neurological compl...

    Authors: Angelica Bianco, Luigi Bisceglia, Maria Fara De Caro, Valeria Galeandro, Patrizia De Bonis, Apollonia Tullo, Stefano Zoccolella, Silvana Guerriero and Vittoria Petruzzella

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:129

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  11. Content type: Case report

    Cenani-Lenz Syndactyly (CLS) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by syndactyly and oligodactyly of fingers and toes, disorganization and fusion of metacarpals, metatarsals and phalang...

    Authors: Dineshani Hettiaracchchi, Carine Bonnard, S. M. A. Jayawardana, Alvin Yu Jin Ng, Sumanty Tohari, Byrappa Venkatesh, Bruno Reversade, Roshni Singaraja and V. H. W. Dissanayake

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:125

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Individuals with an extremely rare inherited condition, termed Congenital Insensitivity to Pain (CIP), do not feel pain in response to noxious stimuli. Variants in SCN9A, encoding the transmembrane voltage-gated ...

    Authors: Wen He, Gareth T. Young, Baohong Zhang, Peter J. Cox, Lily Ting-Yin Cho, Sally John, Sara A. Paciga, Linda S. Wood, Nicolas Danziger, Serena Scollen and Ciara Vangjeli

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:124

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  13. Content type: Case report

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency due to mutations in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) gene. WAS gene is encoded for a multifunctional protein with key roles in actin polymerization...

    Authors: Hossein Esmaeilzadeh, Mohammad Reza Bordbar, Hassan Dastsooz, Mohammad Silawi, Mohammad Ali Farazi Fard, Ali Adib, Ali Kafashan, Zahra Tabatabaei, Forough Sadeghipour and Mohammad Ali Faghihi

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:123

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Digenic inheritance is the simplest model of oligenic disease. It can be observed when there is a strong epistatic interaction between two loci. For both syndromic and non-syndromic hearing impairment, several...

    Authors: Isabelle Schrauwen, Imen Chakchouk, Anushree Acharya, Khurram Liaqat, Irfanullah, Deborah A. Nickerson, Michael J. Bamshad, Khadim Shah, Wasim Ahmad and Suzanne M. Leal

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:122

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  15. Content type: Case report

    X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a recessive keratinization condition caused by deficient activity of steroid-sulfatase due to mutations in steroid sulfatase (STS) gene located on the X chromosome. In contrast, ichth...

    Authors: Xiong Wang, Lu Tan, Na Shen, Yanjun Lu and Ying Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:120

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  16. Content type: Case report

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder of neurogenic brain development characterized by a reduced head circumference at birth with no remarkable anomalies ...

    Authors: Imane Cherkaoui Jaouad, Abdelali Zrhidri, Wafaa Jdioui, Jaber Lyahyai, Laure Raymond, Grégory Egéa, Mohamed Taoudi, Said El Mouatassim and Abdelaziz Sefiani

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:118

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  17. Content type: Case report

    WNT1 mutations cause bone fragility as well as brain anomalies. There are some reported cases of WNT1 mutations with normal cognition. Genotype and phenotype correlation of WNT1 mutations has not been established...

    Authors: Chulaluck Kuptanon, Chalurmpon Srichomthong, Apiruk Sangsin, Dool Kovitvanitcha, Kanya Suphapeetiporn and Vorasuk Shotelersuk

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:117

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, resp...

    Authors: Yiming Lin, Chunmei Lin, Weihua Lin, Zhenzhu Zheng, Mingya Han and Qingliu Fu

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:114

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a debilitating autoimmune disease affecting tens of millions of people in the world. The genetics of AS is unclear. Analysis of rare AS pedigrees might facilitate our understandi...

    Authors: Zhiping Tan, Hui Zeng, Zhaofa Xu, Qi Tian, Xiaoyang Gao, Chuanman Zhou, Yu Zheng, Jian Wang, Guanghui Ling, Bing Wang, Yifeng Yang and Long Ma

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:111

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a sphingolipid storage disorder caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. To date, nearly 170 mutations of HEXA have been described, including only one 7.6 kb large deletion.

    Authors: Jayesh Sheth, Mehul Mistri, Lakshmi Mahadevan, Sanjeev Mehta, Dhaval Solanki, Mahesh Kamate and Frenny Sheth

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:109

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  21. Content type: CASE REPORT

    Blue Cone Monochromacy (BCM) is a rare congenital cone dysfunction disorder with X-linked recessive mode of inheritance. BCM is caused by mutations at the OPN1LW/MW cone opsin gene cluster including deletions of ...

    Authors: Elena Buena-Atienza, Fadi Nasser, Susanne Kohl and Bernd Wissinger

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:107

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  22. Content type: Case report

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, which accounts for 3–5% of colorectal cancer. The risks of several types of cancer are greatly increased among individuals with LS...

    Authors: Shuqin Jia, Meng Zhang, Yu Sun, Hai Yan, Fangping Zhao, Ziyu Li and Jiafu Ji

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:106

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  23. Content type: Research article

    DFNB1, the first locus to have been associated with deafness, has two major genes GJB2 & GJB6, whose mutations have played vital role in hearing impairment across many ethnicities in the world. In our present stu...

    Authors: Pavithra Amritkumar, Justin Margret Jeffrey, Jayasankaran Chandru, Paridhy Vanniya S, M. Kalaimathi, Rajagopalan Ramakrishnan, N. P. Karthikeyen and C. R. Srikumari Srisailapathy

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:105

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  24. Content type: Case report

    Wilson disease (OMIM # 277900) is a autosomal recessive disorder characterized by accumulation of copper in liver and brain. The accumulation of copper resulting in oxidative stress and eventually cell death. ...

    Authors: Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Nguyen Thi Kim Lien, Ngo Diem Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Phuong Mai, Nguyen Pham Anh Hoa, Le Thanh Hai, Phan Van Chi, Ta Thanh Van, Tran Van Khanh and Nguyen Huy Hoang

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:104

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  25. Content type: Case report

    Congenital NBCe1A deficiency with the SLC4A4 mutation causes severe proximal renal tubular acidosis, which often comprises extrarenal symptoms, such as intellectual disability and developmental delay, glaucoma, c...

    Authors: Shoko Horita, Enver Simsek, Tulay Simsek, Nilgun Yildirim, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Motonobu Nakamura, Nobuhiko Satoh, Atsushi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Tsukada, Tomohito Mizuno, George Seki, Shoji Tsuji and Masaomi Nangaku

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:103

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disorder caused by a heterozygous germline mutation in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. Because of the existence of highly homologous pseudogenes, the l...

    Authors: Bin Mao, Siyu Chen, Xin Chen, Xiumei Yu, Xiaojia Zhai, Tao Yang, Lulu Li, Zheng Wang, Xiuli Zhao and Xue Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:101

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  27. Content type: Case report

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation are rare conditions caused by genetic defects in glycan synthesis, processing or transport. Most congenital disorders of glycosylation involve defects in the formation or ...

    Authors: Kristen Westenfield, Kyriakie Sarafoglou, Laura C. Speltz, Elizabeth I. Pierpont, Joan Steyermark, David Nascene, Matthew Bower and Mary Ella Pierpont

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:100

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a common heterogeneous retinopathy and a hearing loss (HL) syndrome. However, the gene causing Usher syndrome type IIC (USH2C) in a consanguineous Chinese pedigree is unknown.

    Authors: Chunli Wei, Lisha Yang, Jingliang Cheng, Saber Imani, Shangyi Fu, Hongbin Lv, Yumei Li, Rui Chen, Elaine Lai-Han Leung and Junjiang Fu

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:99

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  29. Content type: Research article

    We investigated a South African family of admixed ancestry in which the first generation (G1) developed insidious progressive distal to proximal weakness in their twenties, while their offspring (G2) experienc...

    Authors: Mahjoubeh Jalali-Sefid-Dashti, Melissa Nel, Jeannine M. Heckmann and Junaid Gamieldien

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:95

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  30. Content type: Case report

    The link between the protocadherin-19 (PCDH19) gene and epilepsy suggests that an unusual form of X-linked inheritance affects females but is transmitted through asymptomatic males. Individuals with epilepsy asso...

    Authors: Yuxia Tan, Mei Hou, Shaochun Ma, Peipei Liu, Shungang Xia, Yu Wang, Liping Chen and Zongbo Chen

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:92

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease with an incidence rate of 2–6 cases per million per year. Our knowledge of the disease in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is limited by th...

    Authors: Ossama K. Abou Hassan, Wiam Haidar, Georges Nemer, Hadi Skouri, Fadi Haddad and Imad BouAkl

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:89

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  32. Content type: Case report

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by the development of hamartomas in multiple organs, including the brain, heart, skin, kidney, lung and retina. A diagno...

    Authors: Feng Wang, Shiyi Xiong, Lin Wu, Maya Chopra, Xihong Hu and Bingbing Wu

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:90

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Chanarin Dorfman Syndrome (CDS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosiform non-bullous erythroderma and variable involvement of the liver and the neuromuscular system. In CDS patient...

    Authors: Murat Durdu, Sara Missaglia, Laura Moro and Daniela Tavian

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:88

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  34. Content type: Case report

    Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is a rare heritable multi-systemic disorder with significant dermatologic manifestations. It is caused by mutations in ANTXR2, which encodes a transmembrane receptor involved i...

    Authors: Leila Youssefian, Hassan Vahidnezhad, Andrew Touati, Vahid Ziaee, Amir Hossein Saeidian, Sara Pajouhanfar, Sirous Zeinali and Jouni Uitto

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:87

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  35. Content type: Case report

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of connective tissue disorder caused by mutations of genes involved in the production of collagen and its supporting proteins. Although the majority of reported OI varia...

    Authors: Fatemeh Maghami, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Tabei, Hossein Moravej, Hassan Dastsooz, Farzaneh Modarresi, Mohammad Silawi and Mohammad Ali Faghihi

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:86

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  36. Content type: Case report

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare genetic disorder of bone marrow failure inherited in an X-linked, autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive pattern. It has a wide array of clinical features and patients ...

    Authors: Vithiya Ratnasamy, Suganthan Navaneethakrishnan, Nirmala Dushyanthi Sirisena, Nana-Maria Grüning, Oliver Brandau, Kumanan Thirunavukarasu, Casey L. Dagnall, Lisa J. McReynolds, Sharon A. Savage and Vajira H. W. Dissanayake

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:85

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  37. Content type: Case report

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a heterogeneous and potentially fatal disease that presents symptoms of persistent fever, splenomegaly and cytopenia. Primary HLH is identified as an autosomal reces...

    Authors: Xijiang Hu, Dongling Liu, Xiwen Jiang, Bo Gao and Changying Chen

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:82

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Genetic heterogeneity and consanguineous marriages make recessive inherited hearing loss in Iran the second most common genetic disorder. Only two reported pathogenic variants (c.323G>C, p.Arg108Pro and c.419A...

    Authors: Michaela A. H. Hofrichter, Majid Mojarad, Julia Doll, Clemens Grimm, Atiye Eslahi, Neda Sadat Hosseini, Mohsen Rajati, Tobias Müller, Marcus Dittrich, Reza Maroofian, Thomas Haaf and Barbara Vona

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:81

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  39. Content type: Case report

    Blended phenotypes or co-occurrence of independent phenotypically distinct conditions are extremely rare and are due to coincidence of multiple pathogenic mutations, especially due to consanguinity. Hereditary...

    Authors: Joshi Stephen, Sheela Nampoothiri, K. P. Vinayan, Dhanya Yesodharan, Preetha Remesh, William A. Gahl and May Christine V. Malicdan

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:80

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Mutations in the aggrecan (ACAN) gene can cause short stature (with heterogeneous clinical phenotypes), impaired bone maturation, and large variations in response to growth hormone (GH) treatment. For such cases,...

    Authors: Dandan Xu, Chengjun Sun, Zeyi Zhou, Bingbing Wu, Lin Yang, Zhuo Chang, Miaoying Zhang, Li Xi, Ruoqian Cheng, Jinwen Ni and Feihong Luo

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:79

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  41. Content type: Case report

    Raine syndrome (RS) – an extremely rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder, is caused by a biallelic mutation in the FAM20C gene. Some of the most common clinical features include generalized osteosclerosis wit...

    Authors: Jayesh Sheth, Riddhi Bhavsar, Ajit Gandhi, Frenny Sheth and Dhairya Pancholi

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:76

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Microspherophakia is a rare autosomal recessive eye disorder characterized by small spherical lens. It may present as an isolated finding or in association with other ocular and/or systemic disorders. This cli...

    Authors: Laura Alías, Jaume Crespi, Lidia González-Quereda, Jesús Téllez, Elisabeth Martínez, Sara Bernal and Ma Pia Gallano

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:77

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  43. Content type: Case report

    We describe a female infant with Fragile-X syndrome, with a fully expanded FMR1 allele and preferential inactivation of the homologous X-chromosome carrying a de novo deletion. This unusual and rare case demonstr...

    Authors: Paula Jorge, Elsa Garcia, Ana Gonçalves, Isabel Marques, Nuno Maia, Bárbara Rodrigues, Helena Santos, Jacinta Fonseca, Gabriela Soares, Cecília Correia, Margarida Reis-Lima, Vincenzo Cirigliano and Rosário Santos

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:74

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene are associated with Pendred syndrome and autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness (DFNB4). Both disorders have similar audiologic characteristics: bilateral hearing loss, often sev...

    Authors: Renata Watanabe Nonose, Karina Lezirovitz, Maria Teresa Balester de Mello Auricchio, Ana Carla Batissoco, Guilherme Lopes Yamamoto and Regina Célia Mingroni-Netto

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:73

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  45. Content type: Case report

    Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a rare hereditary neurological disorder caused by mutations in PLA2G6. The disease commonly affects children below 3 years of age and presents with delay in motor skills,...

    Authors: Liena E. O. Elsayed, Inaam N. Mohammed, Ahlam A. A. Hamed, Maha A. Elseed, Mustafa A. M. Salih, Ashraf Yahia, Rayan A. Siddig, Mutaz Amin, Mahmoud Koko, Mustafa I. Elbashir, Muntaser E. Ibrahim, Alexis Brice, Ammar E. Ahmed and Giovanni Stevanin

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:72

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  46. Content type: Case report

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a heterogeneous genetic condition characterized by variable phenotypes, such as short stature (mild to moderate), joint deformities, abnormal gait, scoliosis, and brachyd...

    Authors: Taifeng Zhou, Yongqian Wang, Hang Zhou, Zhiheng Liao, Bo Gao, Deying Su, Shuhui Zheng, Caixia Xu and Peiqiang Su

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:70

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  47. Content type: Case report

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) has an incidence of approximately 1:3000, but only 15% have mutations in the thyroid hormone synthesis pathways. Genetic analysis allows for the precise diagnosis.

    Authors: Y. Watanabe, E. Sharwood, B. Goodwin, M. K. Creech, H. Y. Hassan, M. G. Netea, M. Jaeger, A. Dumitrescu, S. Refetoff, T. Huynh and R. E. Weiss

    Citation: BMC Medical Genetics 2018 19:69

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