This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Association study of SHANK3 gene polymorphisms with autism in Chinese Han population
- Jian Qin†1, 2,
- Meixiang Jia†1, 2,
- Lifang Wang1, 2,
- Tianlan Lu1, 2,
- Yan Ruan1, 2,
- Jing Liu1,
- Yanqing Guo1,
- Jishui Zhang3,
- Xiaoling Yang1,
- Weihua Yue1, 2 and
- Dai Zhang1, 2Email author
© Qin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 16 January 2009
Accepted: 30 June 2009
Published: 30 June 2009
Autism, a heterogeneous disease, is described as a genetic psychiatry disorder. Recently, abnormalities at the synapse are supposed to be important for the etiology of autism.SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein) gene encodes a master synaptic scaffolding protein at postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapse. Rare mutations and copy number variation (CNV) evidence suggested SHANK3 as a strong candidate gene for the pathogenesis of autism.
We performed an association study between SHANK3 gene polymorphisms and autism in Chinese Han population. We analyzed the association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SHANK3 gene and autism in 305 Chinese Han trios, using the family based association test (FBAT). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed the presence of LD between pairwise markers across the locus. We also performed mutation screening for the rare de novo mutations reported previously.
No significant evidence between any SNPs of SHANK3 and autism was observed. We did not detect any mutations described previously in our cohort.
We suggest that SHANK3 might not represent a major susceptibility gene for autism in Chinese Han population.
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder mainly characterized by limited or absent verbal communication, lacking of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness and restricted, stereotypical, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior. Autism together with childhood disintegrative disorder, pervasive not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, or atypical autism) and Asperger syndrome share the similar characteristics and are all included as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), also known as pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Family and twin studies have conclusively described autism as a highly heritable neuropsychiatry disorder with heritability estimates of over 90% and the environmental factors contributing no more than 10% [1–3]. Nevertheless, autism is etiologically heterogeneous.
Shank3 (SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3; also termed ProSAP2, proline-rich synapse-associated protein 2) is a master synaptic scaffolding protein[4, 5]. In rats and human beings, Shank3 is expressed preferentially in cerebral cortex and cerebellum[6, 7]. With its multiple protein interaction domains, this molecule directly or indirectly connects with neurotransmitter receptors and cytoskeleton proteins[8, 9]. It also participates in the formation, maturation and enlargement of dendritic spines and is essential for the formation of functional synapses.
Accumulating discoveries indicate that autism's cause may reside in abnormalities at the synapse. Synapses are the physical sites through which neurons in the brain connect with each other into an integrated circuit. In 2003, the alterations in synaptic function was first proposed to be a possible cause of autism. Neuroligins are a family of postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules and may be involved in the synaptogenesis. Mutations of genes encoding neuroligins (NLGN3, NLGN4X) were supposed to be pathogenic for autism and Asperger syndrome. Neuroligin-deficiency mouse models according to these findings exhibit some deficits that are reminiscent of ASD in human[14, 15]. The "neuroligin autim pathway" was postulated. Shank3 acts as a binding partner for neuroligins(NLGNs). It was reported that rare mutations in SHANK3 may contribute to the pathogenesis of autism. Durand et al. reported two de novo alterations in SHANK3 in subjects with ASD but not in control individuals. One is a G insertion, and the other is a deletion of the terminal 22q13 with the breakpoint in intron8 of SHANK3. Moessner et al. identified de novo variants with an A962G exchange in exon8 leading to a heterozygous Q321R substitution. They also reported a heterozygous deletion encompassing SHANK3 in a female proband but in neither parent nor in two unaffected brothers. Recently Gauthier et al. found a de novo deletion at an intronic splice site in their autistic patients, and this deletion will lead to aberrant splicing of the transcript. SHANK3 could also belong to the "NLGN autism pathway".
All these indicate that SHANK3 might be a strong candidate gene for autism. Resequencing has been applied to identify the rare mutations of this gene, but the linkage and association studies of SHANK3 are still insufficient. In this study, we attempted to investigate the association between the SHANK3 gene polymorphisms and autism in 305 Chinese Han trios on a population-based approach using the family-based association test (FBAT). We also performed mutation screen of this gene in probands with autism in order to detect the rare de novo mutations reported previously.
The sample for this study consisted of 305 Chinese Han family trios (singleton autistic disorder patients and their unaffected biological parents). These families were recruited at the Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, China. Of the 305 autistic child probands, 281 were male and 24 were female. The mean age of the children at the time of testing was 11 years (range 3–25 years). Diagnoses of autism were established by senior psychiatrists. All patients fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder. The cases were assessed using childhood autism rating scale (CARS) and autism behavior checklist (ABC). Children with fragile × syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, a previously identified chromosomal abnormality, dysmorphic features, or any other neurological condition suspected to be associated with autism were excluded. All subjects provided written informed consent for participation in this study. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Health Science Center, Peking University.
Genotyping and sequencing
Information of the primers and PCR-RFLP Analysis
Primer sequence (5'→3')
rs2301584, rs41281537, rs756638
G insertion in exon21
A962G in exon8
splice doner site of intron19
Deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for genotype frequency distributions was analyzed using the Chi-square goodness-of-fit test. To perform single- and multi-locus tests of association, we used the FBAT program (v. 1.5.1). The FBAT program uses a generalized score statistic to perform a variety of transmission disequilibrium tests, including haplotype analysis. Moreover, the FBAT program provides pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis to detect an inter-marker relationship, using D' values. SNP pairs were considered to be in strong LD if D' > 0.70. The global haplotype tests of association were performed under "multiallelic" mode in haplotype FBAT. Meanwhile, the individual haplotype tests were conducted under "biallelic" mode in haplotype FBAT. Family-based association tests were performed under an additive model in the present study. The significance level for all statistical tests was two-tailed P < 0.05.
Results of FBAT for the five SNPs
Measure of Pairwise Linkage Disequilibrium D (D') Between Five SNPs in SHANK3 gene
The SHANK3 gene spans about 60 kb. In Affimatrix SNP 5.0 chip of 240 trios from this sample, it included 16 CNV probes covering SHANK3 gene and its flanking region. The smallest distance between two probes was less than 500 bp. In these probes, one CNV probe was located at intron8 which was reported as a breakpoint of a de novo deletion, and a few CNV probes were quite close to exon21 which was reported as a breakpoint of a de novo translocation in 22q13 deletion syndrome. However, we didn't find any genomic imbalance in all these 240 trios or control (unpublished data).
Shank3 is a master synaptic scaffolding protein, acting as the bridge of some neurotransmitter receptors and the downstream signal transduction. It has been postulated to perform important roles in excitatory synapse assembly [23–26], dendritic formation and maturation[10, 27, 28]. The de novo alterations of this gene and their roles in the pathogenesis of autism have been reported by some studies [17–19]. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that the SHANK3 might be a strong candidate gene for autism. However, there was few evidence of association between SHANK3 polymorphisms and autism. In the present study, we investigated the association of SHANK3 polymorphisms and autism in 305 Chinese Han trios. We detected seven dbSNPs of SHANK3, including two nonpolymorphic SNPs rs2106112 (synonymous mutation) and rs13057681 (H1033D) in our samples. In a family-based association study for all the other five SNPs we found no evidence for transmission disequilibrium for any single marker (P > 0.05), even for the missense SNP rs9616915C>T which was reported as a non-synonymous variant identified in ASD. In attempt to identify de novo genetic variants in SHANK3 that had been reported previously, we performed mutation screen of exon8, part of exon21, the donor slpice site of intron19 of SHANK3 in 305 probands with autism, and only identified one novel synonymous variant (T1231). In addition, the specific and global-haplotype FBAT tests of association were performed. Four SNPs were located in a block with high LD including rs6010065, rs2301584, rs41281537, rs756638. However, only C-G-G-A (rs6010065- rs2301584- rs41281537- rs756638, P = 0.040) exhibited a weak association with autism in our sample. We didn't detect any genomic imbalance of SHANK3 and its flanking region in our sample using Affimetrix 5.0 chip either. Our finding suggested that SHANK3 doesn't represent a major susceptibility gene for autism in the autism families ascertained from Chinese Han population.
Several potential reasons might explain the difference among various reports about SHANK3 gene and autism. One might be the racial and ethnic differences in genotype distribution and association with autism risk. For example, the allele frequency of the SHANK3 non-synonymous SNP rs9616915 was obviously different between Chinese and the other populations in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) gene database. For European (CEU), and Nigeria population, the frequencies of allele C are 0.533 and 0.383 respectively, but for Chinese Han population (CHB) it is 0.044. Further, the variety of the investigated samples should be noticed. The previous evidence about SHANK3 was always from subjects with ASD, including autism, Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS. Our autism cases only include patients with infantile autism, and not other cases of the etiologically more heterogeneous ASD. The heterogeneity of the investigated samples combined with the heterogeneity of neurodevelopmental disorders might hamper the understanding of genetic factors associated with autism. In order to enhance the possibility of finding relevant genetic cause, the phenotype variability in sample should be reduced. In the present study we examined a relatively homogenous sample of autism to reduce the heterogeneity. The location of SHANK3 is at 22q13.3, which is a critical region for 22q13 deletion syndrome that also has autistic behavior. There are strong evidence that haploinsufficiency of SHANK3 plays a major role in 22q13 deletion syndrome. SHANK3 is very likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of some mutual phenotypes of ASD and 22q13 deletion syndrome, such as delay of expressive speech. Furthermore, 22q13 deletion syndrome has a clinical phenotype overlapping in part the ASD phenotype. So subjects with 22q13 deletion may be included in ASD samples. It is really critical for the researches on autism to exclude the 22q13 deletion syndrome. We didn't detect any genomic imbalance of 22q13 in our samples using Affimetrix SNP 5.0 chip. Moreover, although the disruption of SHANK3 seems to be associated with 22q13 deletion syndrome, there is also contrary evidence that the haploinsufficiency for 22q13 genes other than SHANK3 have major effects. The present study indicates that SHANK3 may not be a critical gene for the etiology of infantile autism in Chinese Han population. As autism is a heterogeneous disease, the rare mutations of SHANK3 gene seem to explain the etiology of only a small proportion of cases with autism. Sykes et al. reported recently that they didn't find any CNV or SNP association of SHANK3 within their ASD sample, although they didn't sequence the gene. Their suggestion that SHANK3 deletions may be limited to a portion of autism was coincident with ours.
There was few association or linkage study for SHANK3 and autism. Our family-based association study provided an indication that SHANK3 was not critical for the pathogenesis of autism in Chinese Han population or only account for a small proportion of autism individuals. In addition, our results also reinforce the need for the detailed LD mapping, mutation screening and CNV analysis of SHANK3 in different population or other neurodevelopmental disorders.
The present study did not find strong evidence of SHANK3 polymorphisms and autism or identify any described non-synonymous mutations in our cohort. These might indicate that SHANK3 doesn't represent a major susceptibility gene for autism in the autism families ascertained from Chinese Han population.
We thank all the patients and their families for their support and participation. This work was supported by National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (2006AA02Z195), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30870897), and the Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation (7081005).
- Persico AM, Bourgeron T: Searching for ways out of the autism maze: genetic, epigenetic and environmental clues. Trends Neurosci. 2006, 29: 349-358. 10.1016/j.tins.2006.05.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abrahams BS, Geschwind DH: Advances in autism genetics: on the threshold of a new neurobiology. Nat Rev Genet. 2008, 9: 341-355. 10.1038/nrg2346.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Garber K: Neuroscience. Autism's cause may reside in abnormalities at the synapse. Science. 2007, 317: 190-191. 10.1126/science.317.5835.190.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ehlers MD: Molecular morphogens for dendritic spines. Trends Neurosci. 2002, 25: 64-67. 10.1016/S0166-2236(02)02061-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sheng M, Kim E: The Shank family of scaffold proteins. J Cell Sci. 2000, 113 (Pt 11): 1851-1856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lim S, Naisbitt S, Yoon J, Hwang JI, Suh PG, Sheng M, Kim E: Characterization of the Shank family of synaptic proteins. Multiple genes, alternative splicing, and differential expression in brain and development. J Biol Chem. 1999, 274: 29510-29518. 10.1074/jbc.274.41.29510.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bonaglia MC, Giorda R, Borgatti R, Felisari G, Gagliardi C, Selicorni A, Zuffardi O: Disruption of the ProSAP2 gene in a t(12;22)(q24.1;q13.3) is associated with the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2001, 69: 261-268. 10.1086/321293.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Boeckers TM, Bockmann J, Kreutz MR, Gundelfinger ED: ProSAP/Shank proteins – a family of higher order organizing molecules of the postsynaptic density with an emerging role in human neurological disease. J Neurochem. 2002, 81: 903-910. 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2002.00931.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ehlers MD: Synapse structure: glutamate receptors connected by the shanks. Curr Biol. 1999, 9: R848-850. 10.1016/S0960-9822(00)80043-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roussignol G, Ango F, Romorini S, Tu JC, Sala C, Worley PF, Bockaert J, Fagni L: Shank expression is sufficient to induce functional dendritic spine synapses in aspiny neurons. J Neurosci. 2005, 25: 3560-3570. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4354-04.2005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zoghbi HY: Postnatal neurodevelopmental disorders: meeting at the synapse?. Science. 2003, 302: 826-830. 10.1126/science.1089071.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Varoqueaux F, Aramuni G, Rawson RL, Mohrmann R, Missler M, Gottmann K, Zhang W, Sudhof TC, Brose N: Neuroligins determine synapse maturation and function. Neuron. 2006, 51: 741-754. 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.09.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jamain S, Quach H, Betancur C, Rastam M, Colineaux C, Gillberg IC, Soderstrom H, Giros B, Leboyer M, Gillberg C, et al: Mutations of the X-linked genes encoding neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 are associated with autism. Nat Genet. 2003, 34: 27-29. 10.1038/ng1136.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Tabuchi K, Blundell J, Etherton MR, Hammer RE, Liu X, Powell CM, Sudhof TC: A neuroligin-3 mutation implicated in autism increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in mice. Science. 2007, 318: 71-76. 10.1126/science.1146221.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Jamain S, Radyushkin K, Hammerschmidt K, Granon S, Boretius S, Varoqueaux F, Ramanantsoa N, Gallego J, Ronnenberg A, Winter D, et al: Reduced social interaction and ultrasonic communication in a mouse model of monogenic heritable autism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008, 105: 1710-1715. 10.1073/pnas.0711555105.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Meyer G, Varoqueaux F, Neeb A, Oschlies M, Brose N: The complexity of PDZ domain-mediated interactions at glutamatergic synapses: a case study on neuroligin. Neuropharmacology. 2004, 47: 724-733. 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2004.06.023.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Durand CM, Betancur C, Boeckers TM, Bockmann J, Chaste P, Fauchereau F, Nygren G, Rastam M, Gillberg IC, Anckarsater H, et al: Mutations in the gene encoding the synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK3 are associated with autism spectrum disorders. Nat Genet. 2007, 39: 25-27. 10.1038/ng1933.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moessner R, Marshall CR, Sutcliffe JS, Skaug J, Pinto D, Vincent J, Zwaigenbaum L, Fernandez B, Roberts W, Szatmari P, et al: Contribution of SHANK3 mutations to autism spectrum disorder. Am J Hum Genet. 2007, 81: 1289-1297. 10.1086/522590.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gauthier J, Spiegelman D, Piton A, Lafreniere RG, Laurent S, St-Onge J, Lapointe L, Hamdan FF, Cossette P, Mottron L, et al: Novel de novo SHANK3 mutation in autistic patients. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009, 150B930: 421-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schopler E, Reichler RJ, DeVellis RF, Daly K: Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). J Autism Dev Disord. 1980, 10: 91-103. 10.1007/BF02408436.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krug DA, Arick J, Almond P: Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1980, 21: 221-229. 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1980.tb01797.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rabinowitz D, Laird N: A unified approach to adjusting association tests for population admixture with arbitrary pedigree structure and arbitrary missing marker information. Hum Hered. 2000, 50: 211-223. 10.1159/000022918.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tu JC, Xiao B, Naisbitt S, Yuan JP, Petralia RS, Brakeman P, Doan A, Aakalu VK, Lanahan AA, Sheng M, et al: Coupling of mGluR/Homer and PSD-95 complexes by the Shank family of postsynaptic density proteins. Neuron. 1999, 23: 583-592. 10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80810-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Naisbitt S, Kim E, Tu JC, Xiao B, Sala C, Valtschanoff J, Weinberg RJ, Worley PF, Sheng M: Shank, a novel family of postsynaptic density proteins that binds to the NMDA receptor/PSD-95/GKAP complex and cortactin. Neuron. 1999, 23: 569-582. 10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80809-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qualmann B, Boeckers TM, Jeromin M, Gundelfinger ED, Kessels MM: Linkage of the actin cytoskeleton to the postsynaptic density via direct interactions of Abp1 with the ProSAP/Shank family. J Neurosci. 2004, 24: 2481-2495. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5479-03.2004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Proepper C, Johannsen S, Liebau S, Dahl J, Vaida B, Bockmann J, Kreutz MR, Gundelfinger ED, Boeckers TM: Abelson interacting protein 1 (Abi-1) is essential for dendrite morphogenesis and synapse formation. Embo J. 2007, 26: 1397-1409. 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601569.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Boeckers TM, Liedtke T, Spilker C, Dresbach T, Bockmann J, Kreutz MR, Gundelfinger ED: C-terminal synaptic targeting elements for postsynaptic density proteins ProSAP1/Shank2 and ProSAP2/Shank3. J Neurochem. 2005, 92: 519-524. 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02910.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baron MK, Boeckers TM, Vaida B, Faham S, Gingery M, Sawaya MR, Salyer D, Gundelfinger ED, Bowie JU: An architectural framework that may lie at the core of the postsynaptic density. Science. 2006, 311: 531-535. 10.1126/science.1118995.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wermter AK, Kamp-Becker I, Strauch K, Schulte-Korne G, Remschmidt H: No evidence for involvement of genetic variants in the X-linked neuroligin genes NLGN3 and NLGN4X in probands with autism spectrum disorder on high functioning level. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008, 147B: 535-537. 10.1002/ajmg.b.30618.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilson HL, Wong AC, Shaw SR, Tse WY, Stapleton GA, Phelan MC, Hu S, Marshall J, McDermid HE: Molecular characterisation of the 22q13 deletion syndrome supports the role of haploinsufficiency of SHANK3/PROSAP2 in the major neurological symptoms. J Med Genet. 2003, 40: 575-584. 10.1136/jmg.40.8.575.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wilson HL, Crolla JA, Walker D, Artifoni L, Dallapiccola B, Takano T, Vasudevan P, Huang S, Maloney V, Yobb T, et al: Interstitial 22q13 deletions: genes other than SHANK3 have major effects on cognitive and language development. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008, 16: 1301-1310. 10.1038/ejhg.2008.107.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sykes NH, Toma C, Wilson N, Volpi EV, Sousa I, Pagnamenta AT, Tancredi R, Battaglia A, Maestrini E, Bailey AJ, et al: Copy number variation and association analysis of SHANK3 as a candidate gene for autism in the IMGSAC collection. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009 in press.Google Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://0-www.biomedcentral.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/1471-2350/10/61/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.